How do Fiber Optic Cable Work?

What if I could transmit this light and use it to send data thousands of kilometers away in an instant? This is the principle behind the fiber optic cable – a system that uses high-purity glass, laser, reflection and refraction to upload cat video from a mid-world server. To facilitate understanding, let’s divide it into two main elements: the cable itself and the light transmitted through it.

fiber optic cable
fiber optic cable

Light reflection is the redirection of it using a reflective surface. In this case, the light is once redirected from the sun to the table across the watch face. In an optical fiber cable, this may happen a million times or more.

The cable consists of two main parts: pulp and cladding, surrounded by more glass – cladding – but planted or “numb” in small amounts of elements such as germanium and boron.

Fiber optic cable permoance
Fiber optic cable

Doping reduces the refractive index. Since the water has a higher refractive index than the ambient air, the light reflected in the right corner beneath a pure glass tube inside the cladding also maintains a bouncing beam inside.

How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light?

 Optical Fiber Transmit Light
Optical Fiber Transmitting Light

Suppose you want to flash a flashlight beam under a long, straight hallway. Just point the beam directly towards the hallway – light travels in straight lines, so it’s not a problem. What if there is a twist in the hallway? You can place a mirror on the bend to reflect here the beam around the corner. What if the hallway is too curved with multiple turns? You can attach walls to mirrors and angle the beam so that it bounces off the edge of the hallway. This is exactly what happens in an optical fiber.

Optical Fiber Communication System

In fiber optic cable , the light bounces off the cladding (mirror-lined walls) continuously and passes through the core (hallway), a principle known as total internal reflection. Because the cladding does not absorb it, the light wave can travel great distances.


However, the optical fiber cable of the signal depends on the purity of the glass and the wavelength of the transmitted light (for example, 850 nm = 60 to 75 percent/km; 1,300 nm = 50 to 60 percent/km; 1,550 nm is greater than 50; percent / Km). Some premium optical fibers show very little signal degradation – less than 10 percent/km at 1,550 nm.

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